Wednesday, January 27, 2016

DNA testing to determine Native Ancestry mtDNA A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a


Does the arrow go in the wrong direction ? Did mankind Originate in Canada ?  

Ani-Shin-Abe : mtDNA

Mitochondrial Eve is defined as the woman who was the matrilineal most recent common ancestor for all living humans. Mitochondrial Eve is generally estimated to have lived around 400,000 years ago. Mitochondrial Eve is the most recent common matrilineal ancestor, not the most recent common ancestor.


Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present.
When studying human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, the results indicate that Indigenous Amerindian haplogroups, including haplogroup X, are part of a single founding east Asian population. It also indicates that the distribution of mtDNA haplogroups and the levels of sequence divergence among linguistically similar groups were the result of multiple preceding migrations from Bering Straits populations.All Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA can be traced back to five haplogroups, ABCD and X.  

More specifically, Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA belongs to sub-haplogroups that are unique to the Americas and not found in Asia or Europe: A2, B2, C1, D1, and X2a (with minor groups C4c, D2, D3, and D4h3). 
This suggests that 95% of Indigenous Amerindian mtDNA is descended from a minimal genetic founding female population, comprising sub-haplogroups A2, B2, C1b, C1c, C1d, and D1. The remaining 5% is composed of the X2a, D2, D3, C4, and D4h3 sub-haplogroups.

X is one of the five mtDNA haplogroups found in Indigenous Amerindian peoples. Unlike the four main American mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, C and D), X is not at all strongly associated with east Asia.
Haplogroup X genetic sequences diverged about 20,000 to 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2. X2's subclade X2a occurs only at a frequency of about 3% for the total current indigenous population of the Americas. 
However, X2a is a major mtDNA subclade in North America, where among the Algonquian peoples (Ojibwe and Chipewa)  it comprises up to 25% of mtDNA types. It is also present in lower percentages to the west and south of this area — among theSioux (15%), the Nuu-chah-nulth (11%–13%), the Navajo (7%), and the Yakama(5%). 
Haplogroup X is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe. The predominant theory for sub-haplogroup X2a's appearance in North America is migration along with A, B, C, and D mtDNA groups, from a source in the Altai Mountains of central Asia.
Sequencing of the mitochondrial genome from Paleo-Eskimo remains (3,500 years old) are distinct from modern Amerindians, falling within sub-haplogroup D2a1, a group observed among today's Aleutian Islanders, the Aleuts and Siberian Yupik populations.  This suggests that the colonizers of the far north and subsequently Greenland originated from later coastal populations. Then a genetic exchange in the northern extremes introduced by the Thule people (proto-Inuit) approximately 800–1,000 years ago began. These final Pre-Columbian migrants introduced haplogroups A2a and A2b to the existing Paleo-Eskimo populations of Canada and Greenland, culminating in the modern Inuit.

You can obtain your Y-DNA (male) and mtDNA (female) DNA from FamilyTreeDNA by ordering their Y-DNA12 Kit for $49 then adding the mtDNA for a reduced price......  

Monday, January 25, 2016

X2 mtDNA in Galilee Northern Israel and the 12 Tribes


In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The genetic sequences of haplogroup X diverged originally from haplogroup N, and subsequently further diverged about 30,000 years ago to give two sub-groups, X1 and X2.

Sub-group X2 appears to have undergone extensive population expansion and dispersal around the last glacial maximum, about 22,000 years ago. It is more strongly present in the Near East, the Caucasus, and Mediterranean Europe; and somewhat less strongly present in the rest of Europe. Particular concentrations appear amongst the Israeli Druze community (27%). Subclades X2a and X2g are found in North American Ojibwe.

Druze: The greatest frequency of haplogroup X is observed in the Druze, a minority population in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as much in X1 (16%) as in X2 (11%). The Druze also have much diversity of X lineages. This pattern of heterogeneous parental origins is consistent with Druze oral tradition. The Galilee Druze represent a population isolate, so their combination of a high frequency and diversity of X signifies a phylogenetic refugium, providing a sample snapshot of the genetic landscape of the Near East prior to the modern age.



Located in Northern Israel are the following 3 Tribes (Current and Ancient areas of X2a MtDNA)

1. Tribe Naphtali
2. Tribe of Zebulun
3. Tribe of Issachar

1. The Tribe of Naphtali: (Hebrew: נַפְתָּלִי, Modern Naftali Tiberian Nap̄tālî ; "My struggle") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The Tribe of Naphtali was allocated the eastern side of the Galilee (on the immediate west of the Sea of Galilee), in the areas now known as the Lower Galilee, and Upper Galilee, and was bordered on the west by Asher, in the north by Dan, in the south by Zebulun, and by the Jordan River on the east. (Joshua 19:32-39) The most significant city was Hazor. In this region, bordering the Sea of Galilee, was the highly fertile plain of Gennesaret, characterised by Josephus as the ambition of nature, an earthly paradise,and with the southern portion of the region acting as a natural pass between the highlands of Canaan, several major roads (such as those from Damascus to Tyre and Acre) ran through it. The prosperity this situation brought is seemingly prophesied in the Blessing of Moses, though textual scholars view this as a postdiction, dating the poem to well after the tribe had been established in the land.

2. Tribe of Zebulun: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Zebulun (alternatively rendered as Zabulon, Zabulin, Zabulun, Zebulon; Hebrew: זְבוּלֻן, Modern Zvulun Tiberian Zəḇûlūn ; "Dwelling; habitation") was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory it was allocated was at the southern end of the Galilee, with its eastern border being the Sea of Galilee, the western border being the Mediterranean Sea, the south being bordered by the Tribe of Issachar, and the north by Asher on the western side and Naphtali on the eastern. (Joshua 19:10-16)

3. Tribe of Issachar: According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Issachar (Hebrew: יִשָּׂשׁכָר, Modern Yissakhar Tiberian Yiśśâḵār) was one of the Tribes of Israel. Following the completion of the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes after about 1200 BCE, Joshua allocated the land among the twelve tribes. The territory which it was allocated was immediately north of (the western half of) Manasseh, and south of Zebulun and Naphtali, stretching from the Jordan River in the east, to the coast in the west; this region included the fertile Esdraelon plain. (Joshua 19:17-23)